Give 4 differences between the 19 th century Philippines vs the… Give 4 differences between the 19th century Philippines vs the Modern Philippines and explain each briefly. Refer to the module belowLesson 1:? Panoramic Survey (the Philippines in the 19th?entury)INTRODUCTIONThe essence of the life of Rizal is marked by the conditions that existed during his lifetime in the Philippines and around the world, particularly in Europe. Rizal is the product of his era and his message sets forth as human declaration that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.The 19th?entury stands out as an extremely dynamic and creative age especially in Europe and the United States. During this period such concepts as industrialism, democracy, and nationalism gained ascendancy and triggered revolutionary changes in science, technology, economics, and politics. These changes enabled man to achieve the heights of prosperity and dignity.?owever, 19th?entury Philippines was largely medieval, although signs of progress or change were noted in certain sectors. Its social and economic structure was based on the old feudalistic patterns of abuse and exploitation of?he?ndio.?arlier, clamor for reforms had mentioned unheeded; social and discontent caused confusion among the people.?ESSON PROPERTHE PHILIPPINES?IN THE 19th CENUTRY?OCIAL STRUCTURE: The Philippine society was predominantly?eudalistic- the result of the Spanish land holding system imposed upon the country with the arrival of the?onquistadores.?n elite class exploited the masses, fostered by the “massive slave” relationship between the Spaniards and the Filipinos. The Spaniards exacted all forms of taxes and tributes, and drafted the natives for manual labor. Consequently, the poor became poorer and the rich wealthier.?he Pyramidal structure:1.??PEX (TOP)- peninsulares??panish-born took the highest position in the society and (b) friars.2.??IDDLE CLASS? favored rich natives, mestizos (half breed), creoles (Philippine-born Spaniards)3.??ASE? indios were looked down upon; the?ndios?ere typically the native Filipinos.?acial discrimination was prevalent as the Spanish?orn?eninsulares?ere given the highest offices and?ositions in society. While the criollos, the Philippine-born Spaniards, the half breed or mestizos, enjoyed second priority and the?ative or indios?ere look down upon.?his shows the structure of the Philippine government and its function. Unluckily, there were abuses of the officials in their power to hold public office. So, below are the specified sources of abuses and sometimes corruption by the officials in the administrative system.?he main cause of the administrative system was the appointment of officials with inferior qualifications, and without dedication to duty, and moral strength to resist corruption for material advancement.These officials were given duties and powers and privileges.Another is the Union of the Church and the State.The principal officials of the Administrative system obtained their position by royal appointment, while the rest of the position were either filled by the governor general himself or were sold to the highest bidder. ?OLITICAL SYSTEM:Spain governed the Philippines through the?inistro de Ultramar?Ministry of the Colonies) that was established in Madrid on 1863.?This body helped the Spanish monarch manage the affairs of the colonies and govern the Philippines through a centralized machinery exercising:ExecutiveLegislativeJudicial andReligious powers.?he Governor General appointed by the Spanish monarch headed the central administration in Manila, He was the king’s representative in all state and religious matters and as such he exercised extensive powers. He issued executive orders and proclamation and he had supervision and disciplinary powers over all government officials.?e was the commander in chief of the armed forces of the Philippines. He had supreme authority in financial matters until 1784. He also exercised legislative powers with his cumplase.?umplase?s the power of the Governor-General to disregard or suspend a Royal decree if the condition in the colony does not warrant it.By which he could disregard or suspend any law or royal decree from Spain.?n ex-officio president of the Royal Audiencia until 1861. He enjoyed religious duty gave him the prerogative to nominate priest to ecclesiastical positions and control the finances of the missions.POLITICAL STRUCTURE DURING SPANISH REGIMEIn terms of its Political Structure, Spain governed the Philippines through the Ministro de Ultramar.Ministry of the Colonies established in 1863It helped the Spanish monarchs manage the affairs of the coloniesGoverned the Philippines through a centralized machineryExercising executive, legislative, judicial and religious powers?he Governor General-?s the King’s representative and the highest-ranking official in the Philippines, the governor general saw to it that royal decrees and laws emanating from Spain were implemented in the Philippines. He had the power to appoint and dismiss public officials, except those personally chosen by the King. He also supervised all government offices and the collection of taxes. The governor general exercised certain legislative powers, as well. He issued proclamations to facilitate the implementation of laws.The Residencia-?his was a special judicial court that investigates the performance of a governor general who was about to be replaced. The residencia, of which the incoming governor general was usually a member, submitted a report of its findings to the King.The Visita-?he Council of the Indies in Spain sent a government official called the Vistador General to observe conditions in the colony. The Visitador General reported his findings directly to the King.The Royal Audiencia-?part from its judicial functions, the?oyal Audiencia?erved as an?dvisory?ody to the Governor General and had the power to?heck?nd a report on his abuses. The Audiencia also audited the expenditures of the colonial government and sent a yearly report to Spain. The Archbishop and other government officials could also report the abuses of the colonial government to be Spanish king. Despite all these checks, however, an abusive governor general often managed to escape stiff fines, suspension, or dismissal by simply bribing the Visitador and other investigators.The Provincial Government-?he Spaniards created local government units to facilitate the country’s administration. There were two types of local government units – the alcadia and the corregimiento. The alcadia, led by the?lcalde?ayor, governed the provinces that had been fully subjugated: the corregimiento, headed by corregidor, governed the provinces that were not yet entirely under Spanish control. The?lcalde?ayors represented the Spanish king and the governor general in their respective provinces. They managed the day-to-day operations of the provincial government, implemented laws and supervised the collection of taxes. Through they were paid a small salary, they enjoyed privileges such as the indulto de comercio, or the right to participate in the galleon trade.The Municipal Government-?ach province was divided into several towns or pueblos headed by Gobernadordcillos, whose main concerns were efficient governance and tax collection. Four lieutenants aided the Governardorcillo: the Teniente Mayor (chief lieutenant), the Teniente de Policia (police lieutenant), the Teniente de Sementeras (lieutenant of the fields) and the Teniente de Ganados (lieutenant of the livestock).SOURCES OF ABUSES IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM?he main cause of weakness of the administrative system was the appointment of officials with inferior qualifications -without dedication to duty, no moral strength to resist corruption.?he kind of officials sent in the Philippines were corrupt, abusive and unqualified officers.?hey were not equipped to any public office.?his was the reason why instead of focusing on their role as public officers to form a good and well nation, they focused on getting wealth through corruption.?he worse thing was that, they became brutal and abusive to native Filipinos to the extent that they executed most of our fellow native Filipinos who fought and resisted against them.There was also complication in the situation between the union of the church and state.?he priest or what we call the “Friars” also became powerful, cruel and corrupt.?FRIARS. The missionaries or the friars as they were known, played a major role not only in propagating the Christian faith but also in the political, social, economic and cultural aspects of the Filipinos. Aside from spreading the word of God, they helped in pacifying the country.The checks adopted by Spain to minimize abuses either proved ineffective or discouraged the officials appointed by the King of Spain were ignorant of Philippine needs.?his was the reason behind their bad motives to our Philippine nation.The most corrupt branch of government was the alcaldias. Dishonest and corrupt officials often exacted more tributes than required by law and pocketed the excess collections. They also monopolized provincial trade and controlled prices and business practices. The parish priests could check this anomaly but in many cases they encouraged the abuses in exchange for favors.Participation in the government of the natives was confined to the lowest offices. They participate only as gobernadorcillo of a town and cabeza de barangay of a barrio. The position of gobernadorcillo was honorary entitled to two pesos/month. The natural and constitutional rights and liberties of the indios were curtailed.?omes were searched without warrants. People were convicted and exiled for being filibusteros Books, magazines and other written materials could not be published without the approval of the Board of Censors?HE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMThere was no systematic government supervision of schools. The teaching methods was obsolete. There was a limited curriculum and poor classroom facilities and there was an absence of teaching materials.The friars inevitably occupied a dominant position in the Philippine educational system.?eligion was the main subject in the schools. Fear of God was emphasized and obedience to the friars was instilled.Indios?ere constantly reminded that they had inferior intelligence and were fit only for manual labor. These practices resulted in a lack of personal confidence and a development of inferiority complex.Students memorized and repeated the contents of books which they did not understand. Teacher discrimination against Filipinos was present.The friars were against the teaching of Spanish in the Philippines.?hey believed that the knowledge of the Spanish language would encourage the people to oppose Spanish rule.?ndios?ight be inspired by the new ideas of freedom and independence, so they isolate Filipinos in the light of intellectual attainment.Since racial discrimination is rampant?ndios?ere not allowed to study and they are only good for manual labor and students/pupils before were only to memorize and repeated the contents of books, religion also was the main subject in the schools in order for them to inculcate in their mind the Fear of God. As seen above the educational system Filipinos were left behind because of discrimination, after sometime the Filipinos allowed to study in the Philippines and in abroad.Ateneo de Manila / Escuela Pia and College of San Juan de Latran?Only school offering secondary education in the PhilippinesAt the end of the Spanish period, the College of San Juan de Letran was the only official secondary school in the Philippines although secondary education was offered at the Ateneo de Manila. Seven provinces had private colleges and Latin schools for general studies, and Secondary Education for girls was furnished by five colleges in Manila. These are:Santa IsabelLa ConcordiaSanta RosaLoobanSanta CatalinaUp the end of the Spanish regime, the University of Santo Tomas was the only institution in the University level of Manila. Initially established solely for Spaniards and?estizos,?t opened its doors to Filipino students for decades before the end of the Spanish rule.Felipe BuencaminoIn 1820, he led the petition criticizing the Dominican methods of instruction in UST, clamored for better professors and demanded government control their University thru anonymous letters.1855 – Governor Crespo organized the commission to study and recommend remedial measures to improve elementary education in the Philippines.Educational Decree of 20 December 1863Orders the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each major town in the Philippines.Escuela Normal ElementalSchool of teachers for the primary school under the Jesuits supervision (1865)Subsequently became a training school for male teachers for work in the secondary schools. (1893)?ducational Decree of 1863Issued to establish teacher trainings schools and to have a government supervision of the public school system.Friars continued protecting their interest by blocking Madrid orders regarding education system (e.g. Monet Decree of 1870 – intended to secularize higher education in the colony)?ne cannot fully understand Rizal’s thought without understanding the social and political context of the 19th century. So for us to fully understand the sentiments of Riza, we need to understand first the era where he lived and suffered. Social scientists marked the 19th century as the birth of modern life as well as the birth of many nation-states around the world.?istoryAsian HistoryHISTORY 123433Get a plagiarism-free order today we guarantee confidentiality and a professional paper and we will meet the deadline.
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