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Take your time I am not in a rash you can spend many hours as you need.1An ecosystem includes A. non-living (abiotic) components onlyB. living (biotic) components onlyC. both biotic and abiotic componentsD. physiographic components only2When an angler decides to fish using a particular type of fly in a shaded part of a lake or stream, she demonstrates her understanding ofA. abiotic factorsB. biotic factorsC. stream ecosystemsD. all the above3-The soil in a flower pot, the amount of water added to the pot, the amount of sunlight received by the plant, the amount and type of fertilizer given, and the temperature of the air surrounding the pot all make up the plant’sA. abiotic factorsB. biotic factorsC. ecosystemD. habitat4-A rapid algal bloom can harm an aquatic ecosystem becauseA. algae deplete the oxygen in the waterB. decomposing dead algae deplete the oxygen in the waterC. an extensive algal bloom blocks the sunlight for other organismsin the waterD. all the above5.The petroleum industry uses 1% of the available fresh water in Alberta for oilfield injection, while farmers use 47% for irrigation. Why are many citizens opposed to the use of water by the petroleum industry but are not concerned with the use of water for irrigation?A. The petroleum industry has lots of money.B. Food produced by irrigation is more vital than the oil produced by the petroleum industry.C. Water used by the petroleum industry is injected deep underground and does not return to the hydrological cycle.D. Farming is more important to the province than the petroleum industry is.6.Match each description with the appropriate term listed. Place your answer in the blank space given.i. ecosystem ii. habitat iii. nutrientiv. algaev. abiotic factor vi. harmful algal bloomA.an area where an organism lives2B.a physical, non-living part of the environment of an organismC.any element or compound that an organism needs for metabolismD.all the organisms in an area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interactE.microscopic, photosynthetic organisms that have vital roles in aquatic ecosystemsF.a rapid growth of algae that can deplete oxygen and block sunlight required by other organisms in an aquatic ecosystem.7.Decide whether each statement is true (T) or false (F). Place your answer in the blank space given.a. Water temperature is an abiotic factor in a lake ecosystem.b. Salt concentration in soil is a biotic factor for seed germination.c. A low concentration of salt does not affect bean seed germination.d. A high concentration of salt affects bean seed germination more than it affects sunflower seed germination.8. Prairie-dog burrows help to aerate the soil so the prairie grasses grow well. Bison prefer to eat this rich vegetation in and around prairie-dog towns. This relationship is an example ofA. commensalismB. mutualismC. parasitismD. none of the above9. A tapeworm lives in the intestines of an animal and absorbs nourishment from its host. If the tapeworm multiplies enough, eventually the host becomes weak and may die of some contracted disease. This relationship is an example ofA. commensalismB. mutualismC. parasitismD. none of the above10. A peacrab lives in the shell of a feeding mussel. The peacrab eats tiny bits of food that the mussel filters in. What is the relationship between the peacrab and the mussel?A. Commensalism B. MutualismC. ParasitismD. Predation11.Match each explanation with the appropriate term listed. Place your answer in the blank space given.i. biomass ii. ecology iii. population iv. biological community v. symbiosis vi. competitiona. A group of organisms of the same species interbreed and live in the same area at the same time.b. In this interaction, two or more organisms compete for the same resource.c. Interacting populations live in a certain area at the same time.d. This describes the dry mass of all the living organisms that occupy a habitat.e. This is a study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their environment.f. This long-lasting, ecological relationship benefits at least one organism of two species that live in close contact.12-Decide whether each statement is true (T) or false (F). Place your answer in the blank space given.A.Nutrients?uch as nitrogen and phosphorus?hat grasses require for growth are converted from decomposing organic matter by micro-organisms.B.Prairie-dog communities benefit numerous other species.C.Cowbirds become part of relationships classified as commensalism and mutualism.D.The great horned owl hunting the snowshoe hare at night has no effect on the ability of the lynx to prey on the snowshoe hare13. Green plants, algae, and tiny aquatic organisms that convert light energy and store it in the chemical bonds of organic molecules are calledA. consumersB. herbivoresC. producersD. primary consumers14. Most people in Canada might be classified asA. carnivores B. herbivores C. omnivores D. producers15. An energy pyramid differs from a biomass pyramid becauseA. one pyramid is inverted to the otherB. an energy pyramid does not show organisms at each trophic levelC. an energy pyramid has fewer organisms at the top trophic levelD. an energy pyramid shows the amount of energy at each trophiclevel, while a biomass pyramid shows the mass transferred at each trophic level16. A food web is different from a food chain because a food webA. does not begin with producersB. shows the various trophic levelsC. does not show what each organism eatsD. consists up of various food chains that are part of an ecosystem17. A northern pike is considered to be a tertiary consumer becauseA. it eats algaeB. it is such a large organismC. it eats primary consumers such as snailsD. it eats other organisms, such as frogs and other fish, that eatsecondary consumers.18.Match each description with the appropriate term listed. Place your answer in the blank space given. i. trophic level iv. decomposervii. food webii. primary consumer iii. omnivorev. secondary consumer vi. food chain viii. ecological pyramida. the pathway along which food is transferred from one trophic level to the next trophic levelb. an organism that feeds on primary consumersc. the division of species within an ecosystem based on their sources of energyd. an organism that eats both plants and animalse. the interconnecting feeding relationships within an ecosystemf. a small organism that breaks complex, organic molecules into simpler organic moleculesg. a diagram that shows the relative amount of energy, the number of organisms, or the amount of matter contained at each trophic level in a food chain or food webh. an organism that obtains its food by feeding on photosynthetic organisms19.Decide whether each statement is true (T) or false (F). Place your answer in the blank space given.a.An organism can be at only one trophic level in the energy pyramid.B.A food chain always begins with the producers. C.Another name for a secondary consumer is a carnivore. D.A food web consists of several food chains.20. An example of a biotic factor in an aquatic ecosystem isA. a pH of soil equal to 6.5B. a water temperature equal to 13.5?CC. the presence of coyote tracksD. the presence of whitestem pondweed21. An example of an abiotic factor that is common to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems isA. the pH of waterB. the amount of cloud coverC. soil characteristicsD. the water temperature22. A soil temperature of 12.2?C at a depth of 10 cm is an example ofA. an abiotic factor in a terrestrial ecosystemB. a biotic factor in a terrestrial ecosystemC. an abiotic factor in an aquatic ecosystemD. a biotic factor in an aquatic ecosystem23. Watering a lawn is most effectiveA. early in the eveningB. early in the morningC. in the afternoonD. anytime during the day24. The carbon cycle begins with the process ofA. cellular respirationB. oxidationC. photosynthesisD. transpiration25. A growing forest is valuable because itA. removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphereB. releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphereC. removes methane from the atmosphereD. uses oxygen from the atmosphere.26.In the oxygen cycle, oxygen isA. added to and removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis B. added to the atmosphere by decomposers and removed byphotosynthesisC. added to the atmosphere by cellular respiration and removed byphotosynthesisD. added to the atmosphere by photosynthesis and removed bycellular respiration and combustion27.A farmer plants alfalfa (a type of legume) to add nitrogen to the soil on his farm. The process through which nitrogen gas is converted into ammonia is known asA. denitrification B. nitrificationC. nitrogenfixation D. fertilizing28.Match each description with the appropriate term listed. Place your answer in the blank space provided.ii. nitrificationiv. biogeochemical cyclevii. transpirationii. carbon sink iii. ozonev. denitrification vi. nitrifying bacteria viii. humiditya.a series of chemical reactions involved in the movement of elements and compounds between living and non-living components of an ecosystemB.a system that removes more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than it returnsC.the moisture content of the atmosphereD.the process of converting ammonia into nitrates or nitritesE.a molecule comprised of three oxygen atomsF.a type of soil bacteria that converts ammonia into nitrates and nitritesG.the loss of water vapour from a plant through its leavesH.the process of converting nitrates in the soil into nitrogen gas.29.Decide whether each statement is true (T) or false (F). Place your answer in the blank space given.a. Energy flows in only one direction through the trophic levels.b. About 90% of chemical energy is used by organisms at each level.c. A burning forest is an example of a carbon source.d. Soil bacteria that convert ammonia into nitrates and nitrites are known as denitrifying bacteria.30. The following illustrates the sequence of events that led to a decline in the caribou population due to habitat fragmentation.I. Cleared forest areas attract moose to live in the area.II. Human activities result in open areas and cutlines throughout ahabitat.III. The caribou population declines due to increased predation.IV. More wolves move into the area.V. Cutlines and open areas allow wolves to spot and capture prey more easily.#The order of events beginning with habitat fragmentation and resulting in a decline in the caribou population isA. I, II, III, IV, VB. V, I, II, IV, IIIC. II, I, V, IV, IIID. II, III, I, IV, V31. Three things that the boreal forest provides areA. carbon dioxide, oxygen, and a reservoir for fresh waterB. oxygen, a sink for carbon, and a reservoir for fresh waterC. oxygen, nitrates, and carbon dioxideD. oxygen, nitrogen, and a sink for carbon32. A person’s ecological footprint is affected byA. the type of food he or she consumesB. the type of transportation he or she usesC. the type of housing he or she maintainsD. all the above33.Match each description with the appropriate term listed. Place your answer in the blank space provided.i. biodiversity ii. habitat destruction iii. invasive species iv. habitat fragmentationa. a species introduced to an area by human action which expands to threaten the variety of life in that areab. the conversion of formerly continuous habitat into patches separated by non-habitat areasc. the variety of life in all its formsd. the permanent alteration of vital characteristics in the habitat of an organism34.Decide whether each statement is true (T) or false (F). Place your answer in the blank space given.A.Only an animal can be an invasive species.B.Clearcutting an area of forest results in habitat destruction.C.The elimination of one key species can affect the health of an entire ecosystem.D. You should rethink your basic assumptions about your lifestyle after you Reduce, Re-use, and Recycle materials you require for your life-style……….1. An example of a pioneer species isA. wheat B. ferns C. bees D. buffalo12. Primary succession in an area of Alberta today occurs because of the effects ofA. glaciationB. clearcut loggingC. mountain formationD. the controlled burn of a forest13. Primary succession can be observed through aquatic succession by noting.A. changes in the numbers and types of organismsB. the appearance of a particular organismC. the disappearance of a particular organismD. that no changes occurred4. Match each description with the appropriate term listed. Place your answer in the blank space given.i. humus ii. primary succession iii.pioneer species iv. climax communitya. This stable community results from the process of succession.b. These simple and hardy plants first colonize barren ground or rock.c. This organic component of soil is produced from decomposed organisms.d. This is the process of changing an environment from bare rock and a few species to a complex community with many species.5.Secondary succession is observed most easilyA. after a forest fireB.after the winter snow has melted C.after a rainstormD.on a lava flowUse the following information to answer questions 6 to 11.”The Okefenokee Swamp lies at the southern end of Georgia in the United States. The swamp has been declared a preserve of natural wildlife. It is a mixture of shallow water, patches of grassland, and stands of cyprus forest. These open- water areas are home to various frogs and wading birds, such as herons. The acidic water is low in oxygen and contains extensive amounts of peat (partially decomposed organic matter) formed from the accumulation of dead vegetation, particularly waterweeds. The waterweeds are so prolific in some areas that they form floating islands called “batteries.” These batteries provide a surface for the growth of sedges and grasses. Lizards, snakes, and shore birds, including the long-toed gallinule and the rail, can be found.As these batteries age, organic matter accumulates up and compresses into peat. The peat settles to provide a more solid surface for the growth of terrestrial plants. As well, various flowering plants take hold with the pitcher plant and Venus’s flytrap. Conditions gradually become suitable for ferns and small shrubs, which add to peat formation and more solid ground. Finally, given enough time, these areas become tree islands that gyrate and whip strangely in the wind, exposing the semisolid nature of the peat below. Large cyprus trees take root as these islands solidify. The trees become firmly attached with their broad-based stems and extensive roots that originate well above the ground.This is now a truly terrestrial environment that supports deer, black bears, bobcats, raccoons, and other large vertebrates, as well as many host of birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Stands of cyprus forest exist until bolts of lightning strikes them, setting them ablaze and completely burning them with the entire mass of peat that accumulated over the decades to form the foundation ofthese forests. These fires reduce these treed areas to the original open waterthat characterizes other parts of the swamp. To prevent these natural fires from destroying the Okefenokee forests, people have built a sill (dam) at the lower end of the swamp to control drainage. Keeping the water level up prevents the forests from drying so that fires that do occur remain localized and produce little damage. This has preserved the forests and caused more and more of the open water and grasslands of the swamp to transform into trees.”6. The primary cause of succession in the swamp water is theA. aquatic life among the weedsB. accumulation of vegetationC. installation of the sillD. recurringfires7. Which factor has allowed the Okefenokee Swamp to persist and regenerate itself over the centuries?A. The aquatic life among the weedsB. The accumulation of vegetationC. The installation of the sillD. Recurringfires8. What are pioneer plants in the succession?A. Patches of grasslandB. Stands of cyprus forestC. Flowering plantsD. Waterweeds9. What was the climax community before the sill was created?A. Patches of grasslandB. Stands of cyprus forestC. Flowering plantsD. Waterweeds10. What was the climax community after the sill was created?A. Patches of grasslandB. Stands of cyprus forestC. Flowering plantsD. Waterweeds11. The succession in the swamp isA. primaryB. secondary C. tertiaryD. intermediary.12.An advantage of selection cutting is that itA. allows the natural process of secondary succession to unfoldB. allows for the harvesting of most timber for lowest costC. breaks and damages remaining trees as selected trees areremovedD. has a very low visual impact and leaves enough vegetation to actas cover for watersheds13.A method of forest harvesting in which mature trees are left throughout the cut-over area is known asA. a seed tree cutB. clearcuttingC. a shelterwood cutD. a selection cut14A line graph of the increase in the human population for both Alberta and Canada would beA. a horizontal lineB. a straight line rising to the rightC. a straight line decreasing to the rightD. a curved line rising to the right15.Fifty moose live in a particular region in northwestern Alberta. The factors that affect the population within the region areA. only the number of births and the number of deathsB. only immigration and emigrationC. only the number of births and the amount of immigrationD. births, deaths, immigration, and emigration16.The population of grouse in a particular region increases and decreases every five years. The graph of the grouse population over 20 years would have the shape ofA.a straight lineB.a J-curveC.an S-curveD.an exponential curve.17. A population of sea monkeys in a fish tank is an example of a closed population becauseA. the birth rate of the sea monkeys is lowB. no sea monkey immigration or emigration occursC. a limited amount of food is available in the fish tankD. the carrying capacity of the fish tank is limited18.Match each description with the appropriate term listed. Place your answer in the blank space given.i. closed population ii. doubling time iii. carrying capacity iv. open population v. S-curve vi. exponential curvea. the maximum number of individuals that can be sustained for an in-definite time in a given ecosystemb. the distinctive curve for a population that is increasing rapidlyc. the amount of time required for a population to double in sized. a group of organisms that exists in a setting where immigration and emigration do not occure. the distinctive curve of the graph for a population limited by factors such as disease, competition, and faminef. a group of organisms that exists in a setting where births, deaths, immigration, and emigration all affect the population numbers19. Snail fossils are an appropriate species for the fossil record becauseA. snail shells are well preservedB. snails exist in a wide variety of environmentsC. snails have survived throughout Earth’s historyD. all the above.20.In “Investigating the Fossil Record: Plotting Changes Over Time” from pages 490 and 491 of the textbook, what assumption had to be made to determine the approximate age of the fossil layers between layer 1 and layer 5?A. Only one type of snail survived.B. The rate of sedimentation was constant throughout the years.C. The ages of the youngest layer and the oldest layer wereaccurate.D. The same number of snails existed during the years that the fossilrecord was examined.21.The key difference between gradualism and punctuated equilibrium is theA. number of organisms observedB. shape of the organismC. rate of changeD. life span of the organism22.The process responsible for variations in the colour and banding of snail shells isA. mutation B. variation C. adaptation D. gradualism23.Decide whether each statement is true (T) or false (F). Place your answer in the blank space given.a. A mutation is always harmful to the survival of an organism. B.Only a tiny fraction of snails from each generation survive.D.Snails with an average of two light-coloured bands are well adapted for a habitat of low shrubs and open areas of tall grasses.E.Snails with solid brown colouring are at a disadvantage in a well-forested area.23.Match each description with the appropriate term listed. Place your answer in the blank space given.i. fossil record iv. gradualismvii. mutation x. fossilii. generationv. punctuated equilibrium viii. variationiii. morphology vi. geneix. adaptationa. basic unit of inheritance passed from parent to offspringb. detailed shape and form of an animalc. theory that changes to organisms occur slowly and steadilyd. record of all life on Earth as preserved by fossilse. difference in the frequency of genes and traits among individual organisms within a populationf. single step in a line of descent of organismsg. theory that changes to organisms in a population can occur in rapid spurts followed by long periods of little changeh. change in a genetic instructioni. evidence or remains of ancient life preserved in Earth’s crustj. any structural trait or behavioural trait that improves an organism’s success at surviving and reproducing in a particular environment24. Charles Darwin theorized that finches on the Galapagos Islands developed different beak types because the finchesA. came from various places with these different beak typesB. interbred for many generationsC. needed to adapt to the various types of food availableD. needed to defend themselves.25.On which of the following statements did Darwin base his theory of natural selection?A. Variation occurs with respect to any trait among individuals in a population.B. Organisms usually produce more offspring than can survive.C. Organisms within a population compete for limited resources.D. All the above are correct.26-The human arm, a whale flipper, and a bat wing are examples ofA. the theory of natural selectionB. DarwinianfitnessC. homologous structuresD. Lamarck’s theory of evolution27.Soot deposits on the buildings and trees around Manchester, England, favoured the survival of the black moth over the peppered moth. A change in conditions in the area that favoured a return to a majority of peppered moths wasA. the removal of treesB. the elimination of pollutionC. an introduction of more birdsD. a decrease in the bird population28.Sexual reproduction allows for.A.the mixing of the traits of both parentsB.the survival of the fittestC.an increase in variation D.within the population all the above.29.Match each description with the appropriate term listed. Place your answer in the blank space given.i.theory of evolution ii. asexual reproduction iii.Darwinian fitness iv. theory of natural selectiona. the reproductive success of an organismb. a theory stating that the nature of a population changes form gradually over timec. the production of identical offspring from a single parent cell by budding, by the division of a single cell, or by the division of the entire organism into two or more partsd. a theory stating that evolution occurs because more organisms are produced than can survive, and only the organisms best suited to their environment survive to reproduce and pass their advantageous traits to their offspring.BiologyScienceEcologyGet a plagiarism-free order today we guarantee confidentiality and a professional paper and we will meet the deadline.
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